However, getting them to read and teaching them to read academic texts can be challenging for any instructor. Below are resources on selecting course readings, motivating students to read, and instructional resources to teach reading in the disciplines. Creating Effective Course Reading Lists An effective reading list supports course content and assignments. Moreover, there should be a reasonable number of readings as part of the workload of your course.
Ideas such as God, freedom, immortality, the world, first beginning, and final end have only a regulative function for knowledge, since they cannot find fulfilling instances among objects of experience.
With Hegel, the immediacy of the subject-object relation itself is shown to be illusory. So-called immediate perception therefore lacks the certainty of immediacy itself, a certainty that must be deferred to the working out of a complete system of experience.
However, later thinkers point out that Hegel's logic pre-supposes concepts, such as identity and negation see Hegelwhich cannot themselves be accepted as immediately given, and which therefore must be accounted for in some other, non-dialectical way.
The later nineteenth century is the age of modernity as an achieved reality, where science and technology, including networks of mass communication and transportation, reshape human perceptions. There is no clear distinction, then, between the natural and the artificial in experience.
Indeed, many proponents of postmodernism challenge the viability of such a distinction tout court, seeing in achieved modernism the emergence of a problem the philosophical tradition has repressed. A consequence of achieved modernism is what postmodernists might refer to as de-realization. De-realization affects both the subject and the objects of experience, such that their sense of identity, constancy, and substance is upset or dissolved.
Important precursors to this notion are found in Kierkegaard, Marx and Nietzsche. In this sense, society has become a realization of abstract thought, held together by an artificial and all-pervasive medium speaking for everyone and for no one.
In Marx, on the other hand, we have an analysis of the fetishism of commodities Marx— where objects lose the solidity of their use value and become spectral figures under the aspect of exchange value. Their ghostly nature results from their absorption into a network of social relations, where their values fluctuate independently of their corporeal being.
Human subjects themselves experience this de-realization because commodities are products of their labor. Workers paradoxically lose their being in realizing themselves, and this becomes emblematic for those professing a postmodern sensibility.
However, with the notion of the true world, he says, we have also done away with the apparent one. What is left is neither real nor apparent, but something in between, and therefore something akin to the virtual reality of more recent vintage.
The notion of a collapse between the real and the apparent is suggested in Nietzsche's first book, The Birth of Tragedy Nietzschewhere he presents Greek tragedy as a synthesis of natural art impulses represented by the gods Apollo and Dionysus.
Where Apollo is the god of beautiful forms and images, Dionysus is the god of frenzy and intoxication, under whose sway the spell of individuated existence is broken in a moment of undifferentiated oneness with nature.
While tragic art is life-affirming in joining these two impulses, logic and science are built upon Apollonian representations that have become frozen and lifeless. Hence, Nietzsche believes only a return of the Dionysian art impulse can save modern society from sterility and nihilism.
This interpretation presages postmodern concepts of art and representation, and also anticipates postmodernists' fascination with the prospect of a revolutionary moment auguring a new, anarchic sense of community.
In order to be responsible we must assume that we are the cause of our actions, and this cause must hold over time, retaining its identity, so that rewards and punishments are accepted as consequences for actions deemed beneficial or detrimental to others Nietzsche;, Thus logic is born from the demand to adhere to common social norms which shape the human herd into a society of knowing and acting subjects.
In this text, Nietzsche puts forward the hypothesis that scientific concepts are chains of metaphors hardened into accepted truths. On this account, metaphor begins when a nerve stimulus is copied as an image, which is then imitated in sound, giving rise, when repeated, to the word, which becomes a concept when the word is used to designate multiple instances of singular events.
Conceptual metaphors are thus lies because they equate unequal things, just as the chain of metaphors moves from one level to another. On Nietzsche's view, the life of an individual and a culture depend upon their ability to repeat an unhistorical moment, a kind of forgetfulness, along with their continuous development through time, and the study of history ought therefore to emphasize how each person or culture attains and repeats this moment.
There is no question, then, of reaching a standpoint outside of history or of conceiving past times as stages on the way to the present. Nietzsche presents this concept in The Gay Science Nietzsche ,and in a more developed form in Thus Spoke Zarathustra Nietzsche —, — Many have taken the concept to imply an endless, identical repetition of everything in the universe, such that nothing occurs that has not already occurred an infinite number of times before.
However, others, including postmodernists, read these passages in conjunction with the notion that history is the repetition of an unhistorical moment, a moment that is always new in each case.
In their view, Nietzsche can only mean that the new eternally repeats as new, and therefore recurrence is a matter of difference rather than identity. Furthermore, postmodernists join the concept of eternal return with the loss of the distinction between the real and the apparent world.
The distinction itself does not reappear, and what repeats is neither real nor apparent in the traditional sense, but is a phantasm or simulacrum. Nietzsche is a common interest between postmodern philosophers and Martin Heidegger, whose meditations on art, technology, and the withdrawal of being they regularly cite and comment upon.
Heidegger's contribution to the sense of de-realization of the world stems from oft repeated remarks such as: Heidegger sees modern technology as the fulfillment of Western metaphysics, which he characterizes as the metaphysics of presence.
From the time of the earliest philosophers, but definitively with Plato, says Heidegger, Western thought has conceived of being as the presence of beings, which in the modern world has come to mean the availability of beings for use.
In fact, as he writes in Being and Time, the presence of beings tends to disappear into the transparency of their usefulness as things ready-to-hand Heidegger , Hence, the mountain is not a mountain but a standing supply of coal, the Rhine is not the Rhine but an engine for hydro-electric energy, and humans are not humans but reserves of manpower.
The experience of the modern world, then, is the experience of being's withdrawal in face of the enframing and its sway over beings.
However, humans are affected by this withdrawal in moments of anxiety or boredom, and therein lies the way to a possible return of being, which would be tantamount to a repetition of the experience of being opened up by Parmenides and Heraclitus.
Heidegger sees this as the realization of the will to power, another Nietzschean conception, which, conjoined with the eternal return, represents the exhaustion of the metaphysical tradition Heidegger a, For Heidegger, the will to power is the eternal recurrence as becoming, and the permanence of becoming is the terminal moment of the metaphysics of presence.The University of Toronto expects its students to write well, and it provides a number of resources to help them.
To find what you need investigate Writing Centres and Writing Courses, consider attending one of the workshops in our Writing Plus series, look at our Writing Advice pages, and read the most recent news about writing support and initiatives at U of T.
Reading and writing book reviews for learned journals plays an important part in academic life but little is known about how academics carry out these tasks. Reading and Writing Book Reviews Across the Disciplines James Hartley School of Psychology, University of .
The TOEFL ® Test Gives You an Advantage: Most Widely Accepted, Most Popular and Most Convenient Choice. The TOEFL test is the most widely respected English-language test in the world, recognized by more than 10, colleges, universities and agencies in more than countries, including Australia, Canada, the U.K.
and the United States. Wherever you want to study, the TOEFL test can help you. In her paper, Academic Writing Across the Disciplines, “good” academic writing in any discipline: the student writer displays reason over emotion, shows level of reading and writing students will be expected to manage.
For example, interpreting data is a skill. The topic of academic writing has been popular in the blogosphere and Twittersphere in the past couple of weeks. I think it all came from Stephen Walt’s Foreign Policy piece “On Writing Well“.
Several fellow academics responded to Walt’s scathing critique of our scholarly writing (read Stephen Saideman, Jay Ulfelder, Dan Drezner, Marc Bellemare, Thomas Pepinsky, Greg Weeks, and I’m.
International academic publisher with offices worldwide. Publishing more than 2, journals, over 4, new books each year, with a books backlist in excess of 60, specialist titles. We are one of the world’s leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, eBooks, textbooks and reference works.