Native Americans in the United States This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Ageand then spread southward throughout the Americas. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the early modern period.
However, each chapter also has a topical focus, which allows Zinn to trace distinct but intersecting lines of historical influence. Zinn uses these intersections of time and topic as a combination of springboard and platform: First, he revisits the major events of American history.
Second, he retells them, emphasizing the role of the people by including details often left out of or minimized in mainstream histories. Third, he makes an interpretative claim about how the powerful elite worked to solidify or maintain their control.
The chapter opens from the perspective of the Arawak Indians who met Columbus. As an essential part of this untold history, Zinn reviews how almost all European settlers in North America treated Native Americans in the same way, committing "genocide" to claim what they saw as their destiny.
Past historians had excused slaughter as the necessary price for human progress. Zinn challenges that assumption and sees re-evaluating those events and who is sacrificed as essential for real progress.
He compares slavery in Europe and Africa, and he touches on the nature of African civilization. Zinn moves back and forth through time by documenting the massive importation of slaves "10 to 15 million" imported by and analyzing what this enslavement meant. Finally, Zinn documents how period power elites assembled "an intricate and powerful system of control" that kept resistant slaves in their place and prevented poor white laborers from rebelling with them.
Zinn sketches the complex economic and political forces driving this armed uprising by whites from the frontier. The frontiersmen were caught between the landed classes in the east of Virginia who received substantial land grants and the Indians to the west.
A harsh summer in ruined crops, leaving the majority of the population hungry and angry. The rebel Nathaniel Bacon led forces who were not happy about their economic situation but who were not happy about open warfare either.
Twenty-three rebels were eventually hanged, an act anchoring what Zinn calls "a complex chain of oppression in Virginia": England was at the top, then the Virginia elite, then the frontiersmen, and finally the Indians at the bottom.
The result was that most people supported the rebellion and a "leveling" of the wealth in the colony. The intense economic imbalance in Virginia was representative of a similar situation back in Europe.
England and other countries displaced the poor from their land, then punished them for being idle, which eventually drove them to the colonies.
Settlers came with hopes of better conditions in America, but most were disappointed: As a result, the decades prior to the American Revolution saw a growing underclass in the colonies, as well as numerous strikes and protest by the poor.
This unhappiness was intensified by the foreign wars England fought, which made merchants rich but further oppressed the poor. To prevent a unified uprising, the power elites thus created even more laws dividing blacks from whites.
Casting light on the concentration of wealth in the decades prior to the revolution, Zinn focuses first on the power struggle between the colonial elites and England. Zinn discusses rebellions of colonial poor against the landowning rich, and he analyzes the Regulator movement against taxation.
Once violence broke out in the s, many of the revolutionary leaders actually struck a moderate tone, while others found ways to resolve colonial class conflicts by creating a united front against England.
A Kind of Revolution Chapter 5 continues to discuss the American Revolution, putting military actions in social and cultural context.
On one hand, forming a militia quickly was possible because so many colonists were armed. On the other hand, the new nation soon started forcing sailors to join the war, which had been one of the complaints against the British.
Once the revolution was won, Americans assumed they could take Indian lands to the west. Many discharged soldiers were not paid, or were paid in devalued currency, and the result was riots. The Intimately Oppressed Chapter 6 shifts focus to those left out of the major political maneuvering of the revolutionary period: Zinn contrasts the legal and social inequality of colonial and early American Caucasian women to the status women held in Indian tribes, arguing that such inequality is built into an economic system based on private property.
Native American women may not have been full equals, but they were treated respectfully, while many European girls came over as servants and remained ill-treated and poor throughout their lives. Black women had it worse: Women, such as Anne Hutchinson, who spoke out publicly were punished.
During the early nineteenth century, the "cult of true womanhood" developed, which justified keeping women at home and in a domestic position. The same period saw the emergence of women public speakers, like the Grimke sisters, who spoke against slavery.
Those activists and the issues they championed became the impetus for the first feminist movements. Zinn then describes the Euro-American treatment of Native Americans, including the many armed conflicts, the broken treaties, and the forced displacements, one of which became known as the Trail of Tears.
Zinn describes the Native American response to government mistreatment, which he then contrasts with the white justification of that treatment.United States History research covers many aspects of American heritage, such as Colonialism, Native American History, the Civil War, the Revolutionary War, Immigration, Industrialism, Slavery, the Vietnam War, Women's History and 20th Century modern history.
United States, officially United States of America, abbreviated U.S. or U.S.A., byname America, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states.
Besides the 48 conterminous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska, at the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
United States History timeline.
Explore Some of Our Other Student-Friendly Searches. The study of American history properly begins with the first peopling of the Americas more than 30, years ago.
Students will learn about the spread of ancient human societies in the Americas, North and South, and their adaptations to diverse physical and natural environments.
Price of an iPhone 8 in the United States USD Original manufacturer's suggest retail price of iPhone 6s () USD Average selling price of Apple iPhone USD Manufacturing cost of. Home page of the United States Patent and Trademark Office's main web site.