Part Two Socialist, Marxist and Communist Indoctrination School kids are being prepared for a socialist world government under the United Nationsto which most public school teachers would not object. The kids are being taught that one culture is just as good as another. They are being taught that it isn't fair for the United States to be the world's only superpower.
Thus, culture is not a static entity, but ever changing. The backdrop of this process is the continuous and unifying stream in [African American] life which is a combination of Africa, the American south, slavery, poverty, migration, and racism.
In the previous section, I concluded that culture is of critical importance in mediation of family issues.
Because race and culture are intertwined, race becomes an integral part of mediation too. Empirical studies have shown that race affects negotiations.
For example, when adversaries are members of the same race, they bargain more cooperatively with one another. Same-race disputants are more cooperative because they trust each other more easily than they trust people of different racial groups.
In contrast, intercultural adversaries endeavor to "maintain a certain face or posture in the eyes of someone different. Differences between white and African American cultures must be explored because traditional dispute resolution systems are universalistic and color-blind.
Usually, white males design American dispute resolution systems based upon white middle-class families they selected as model family structures. In the process, the creators ignored unique characteristics of African American families and families of other diverse cultures.
Systems based on white family prototypes automatically exclude African American families that do not have the characteristics of the white family that is proffered as the model family.
A more appropriate system would reflect cultural values of people of color and their divergent social and physical environments. Thus, mediators should tailor mediation sessions to African American family functioning in accordance with normative behavior in other African American families instead of relying upon inappropriate white family norms.
Furthermore, race is a potential concern during mediation because the percentage of marital breakups among African American families is very high. The divorce rate for African American couples is much higher than the rate of divorce among white American couples. For example, in a survey, twenty-three percent of African American men and thirty-nine percent of African American women reported that they were divorced.
Those percentages were compared with divorce statistics for all other people. Only thirteen percent of all non-African American men and eighteen percent of all non-African American women reported that they were divorced.
Because numerous African American marriages end in divorce, it is conceivable that many African Americans will appear before tribunals to resolve child custody, child support and other family issues.
Some of them will choose to forego the traditional adversarial method of dispute resolution and mediate their disputes. However, mediators should exercise caution in attributing stereotypical beliefs to all African American families.
Each African American family and each member of that family is a unique individual. The practices discussed may not apply to all of them. For instance, some proponents argue that African American family values and practices vary along class lines.
Instead, mediators should consider whether a particular dispute resolution model is appropriate for the specific African American family with whom they are working.
Yet, mediators may rely upon empirical data to help them understand individual African American behavior. The discussions in the following paragraphs highlight African American cultural traits that mediators should recognize and respond to, if appropriate, for ensuring productive mediation sessions.
Knowledge, respect and acceptance of differences between white and African American families is relevant because African Americans and white Americans do not have identical backgrounds or views of the world.
In a speech inPresident Clinton declared that "white Americans and African Americans see the world in drastically different ways.
Racism A pivotal difference between African American and white participants is that racism has psychological affects on African American people.
The intrusion is constant. The feeling of "pain, cruelty, stress, and debasement" are symptomatic of racism.
Another consequence of racism is that African Americans suffer "unique psychological, environmental, and economic stresses" that affect their family life. So, in addition to normal family difficulties that all kinds of families experience, African Americans have to cope with added marital strains of racism and discrimination.
For a proper understanding of contemporary African American family life, a mediator must examine cultural influences and methods by which African American families adapt to segregation and discrimination.
Therefore, as mediators attempt to assist African American families to resolve domestic disputes, they must be sensitive to how racism and prejudice have affected African American family life. This suspicion of whiteAmericans derives from direct or indirect exposure to racism.
A complete history of the injustices African Americans have endured is beyond the scope of this article. White Americans did not allow African Americans to vote, to be educated, to be witnesses or jurors in adversarial proceedings, to travel freely or to marry whomever they wanted to marry.
White people lynched and murdered African Americans for acts as harmless as speaking to a white woman.First, one must examine the issue of "Black English" or "Ebonics". Many view this as a lazy form of English. However, this language, used in everyday speech by a great number of African-Americans, is recognized by linguistics as a dialect with its own rules and structures.
19th Century African and Native Americans - The 19th century was a hard time for the African-Americans and Native Americans of the U.S. Treatment of these people by the White society brought about much pain and suffering for their races.
Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . Ebonics -- a term referring to a dialect of English (African American Vernacular English) Ebonics -- a complex product of historical, environmental and racial factors. The main issue over Ebonics is not language, but perspective.
Americans in the United States, including Ebonics, Black English, and African American Vernacular English. African American English (AAE) is the more encompassing term. Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get .