Repatriation of afghan refugees issues and challenges

On the contrary, they tend to resurface in more complex forms in the country of origin. In approximatelyrefugee people were repatriated globally, according to UNHCR country statistics. The UNHCR and other international agencies take responsibility for assisting refugee people with the process of return, and for helping them to rebuild their lives in their homelands.

Repatriation of afghan refugees issues and challenges

Close search Repatriation Under Conflict: The evaluation analyses the programme's strengths and weaknesses, identifying the operational and contextual limits to its impact, as well as the key conditions for its replication in other repatriation operations.

In conducting the review, the evaluation team undertook a mission to Pakistan to observe the programme at first hand and to discuss its implementation and impact with personnel from UNHCR and other international, governmental and non-governmental organizations.

The team also reviewed the relevant documentation at Headquarters and interviewed key staff members in Geneva who have been involved in the development of the programme. It is now generally accepted that if refugees wish to return to their country of origin, the organization has a responsibility to assist them in doing so, even if conditions there do not appear favourable.

The latest outbreak of fighting between rival factions in Kabul has caused the renewed displacement of hundreds of thousands of civilians and prompted the closure of the border by the government of Pakistan to prevent a further refugee influx.

During the same period, more than 4, Afghans were monitored crossing the border from Pakistan into Afghanistan, returning voluntarily and spontaneously to their homes. Since its establishment in mid, the repatriation grant encashment programme in Pakistan has facilitated the voluntary repatriation of between a third and half of the three million Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

By providing a cash grant in exchange for a ration passbook at the time of the refugee's choice, encashment permits the refugee to choose not only whether, when and where to return, but also how to spend the cash.

It was intended, instead, to act as a catalyst to stimulate broader interest in repatriation to Afghanistan, building upon existing low-key, spontaneous returns.

As such, the encashment programme may be seen as a gamble, one which paid off exceptionally well when conditions in Afghanistan were favourable in mid Whilst it is an attractively simple system, it has to be seen as a partial one, which only addresses the immediate needs of those who are ready and able to return.

It does Repatriation of afghan refugees issues and challenges provide the individual attention required to facilitate the return of vulnerable individuals, for example, nor of those with specific political, ethnic or security concerns.

In doing so, however, there is a considerable risk that some of the potential solutions or support networks required to provide a viable framework for return may no longer be available.

Repatriation of afghan refugees issues and challenges

Premature encashment, occurring either because of poverty or as a result of the upsurge of interest in return following the fall of the Najibullah government in Aprilhas led to considerable hardship. Once deregistered, refugees who do not feel ready or able to return to Afghanistan find themselves in the same disadvantageous situation as many of the unregistered refugees in Pakistan, commonly drifting towards major urban centres.

This may not always be the case, however, and host government objectives must be taken into account when considering the potential negative consequences of an encashment programme. For example, major weaknesses in the registration system have had serious consequences, not only for ongoing assistance activities, but also for the planning and implementation of the repatriation operation.

A significant step forward in addressing this perennial problem was made recently in the Burundi emergency operation where registration has been oriented towards eventual repatriation.

For a repatriation operation to be successful - regardless of the mechanism of return - UNHCR must begin to place much greater emphasis on the linkage between its repatriation activities in the country of asylum and its reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts in the country of origin.

The traditional split between country of asylum and country of origin will continue to undermine operational efforts on both sides of the border until this linkage is achieved by bringing the two sides together into a single operation.

Unfortunately, in Pakistan, placement difficulties hindered the effectiveness of the High Commissioner's envoy. Attention needs to be paid in future repatriation operations to the placement of a special envoy in a way which most effectively brings together operations in the countries concerned.

In addition, serious consideration should be given to the appointment of staff to an operation rather than to a particular country, giving staff in key functions a cross-border or regional responsibility. One of the significant weaknesses of the Pakistan programme has been a lack of clarity, and in some cases directly conflicting objectives pursued by different components of the operation.

When UNHCR is engaged in a facilitated repatriation operation, particular attention must be paid to the management of care and maintenance activities to ensure that refugees are not prematurely pressured into leaving the country of asylum. Establishment of an inter-agency strategy for rehabilitation, and a careful definition of roles and responsibilities at an early stage, could have avoided many of the problems which have hampered reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan.

It has also highlighted the benefits of providing cash for assisting the repatriation of a large caseload. The limitations and negative consequences of the programme have, however, once again exposed the need for UNHCR to confront and seek solutions to a number of important operational and organizational weaknesses which are, all too often, common features of its repatriation operations.

Nevertheless, as refugees are increasingly faced with a choice between unsatisfactory conditions in the country of asylum and in the country of origin, UNHCR will be confronted with such challenges with growing frequency. For the next three years, UNHCR's activities focused on providing emergency relief to the refugees, who, by mid, were already estimated to number more than two million.

Byhowever, when the outflow had slowed down and the refugee population had started to stabilize, UNHCR's efforts were shifted away from care and maintenance towards self-sufficiency and income-generation. In preparation for an anticipated massive repatriation following the peace settlement, a Bilateral Agreement was signed between Afghanistan and Pakistan, followed by agreements between the UN and the two countries concerned, reaffirming the voluntary nature of the return and defining the general characteristics of the assistance that would be provided to returnees.

The withdrawal of Soviet troops, which had begun shortly after the Geneva Accords, was completed by February To ensure that such a massive movement of people would proceed in an orderly and sustainable manner, international, governmental and non-governmental organizations rallied their forces to address the vast range of needs in a coordinated manner.

UNOCA launched its Operation Salaam, which was to provide country-wide rehabilitation assistance, with particular emphasis on the 14 provinces from which a third or more of the population had become refugees.

Refugee settlement challenges & impact on children

Since some parts of the country were still affected by combat, it was envisaged that the work would proceed initially in so-called "zones of tranquility. Instead of the Soviet withdrawal leaving behind a peaceful environment conducive to return, it left a well-armed and war-seasoned population, rife with traditional enmities based on ethnic, religious and political divisions.

The pattern of internal conflict which followed has varied both in intensity and in geographical coverage over the intervening five years. It continues, however, on a scale which prevents the population of Afghanistan from finding a long-awaited peace.

The registration system had been established by the government of Pakistan at the beginning of the outflow from Afghanistan.Resettlement. Resettlement is the organised movement of refugees from refugee camps, urban areas or other temporary situations to a third country where they can live permanently.

Refugee settlement challenges & impact on children - Leaving everything behind in one life and beginning another in a different country with different laws, different education and health systems, different languages and different cultural expectations requires a period of adjustment.

In Afghanistan, he said, more than 3 million refugees and internally displaced Afghans had returned to their homes since the end of His office was working with the Governments of Iran and Pakistan to facilitate the return of 1 million more this year.

In , about 58, Afghan refugees voluntarily returned to their country after decades aboard only to be met with protection risks and “significant” barriers to long-term reintegration into society, two United Nations agencies working in the Asian country reported on Thursday. Abstract Afghan refugees living in refugee camps in Pakistan are studied in this thesis.

However, the repatriation and resettlement of Afghan refugees necessitate the durable solution strategy for. The special difficulties faced by host countries of refugees and displaced persons were highlighted by speakers this morning as the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) continued.

Repatriation of afghan refugees issues and challenges
Refugee settlement: repatriation - local integration - resettlement